www.cuci.nl/~e-amac - Cross-Cultural Management Researchers

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The importance of culture dimensions to economic, political and social development in Africa has become increasingly obvious in recent years as many of the expectations of African institutions and organizations created and managed along lines of western theories and models have failed to achieve expected results of sustainable economic growth, political stability, and social development. Because western type development theories and models have failed to meet the expectations of African economic, political and social development, cultural values therefore becomes particularly critical in theorizing and designing alternative models for most countries of Sub-Saharan Africa compatible with local cultures and environment and meet the expectations of sustainable economic development.

Euro-African Management Research Consult (E-AMARC) is an African-European organization established, registered and located in Maastricht, Netherlands. E-AMARC was established and mandated to undertake Cultural Research, Training and Consulting needed to enhance Economic, Political and Social Development issues towards policy implementation and sustainable indigenous development within the Regions of Sub-Saharan Africa. E-AMARC vision is to serve as a think tank for private and public economic development policy analysis and implementation congruous with local cultures and environment.

E-AMARC is a modern research, training and consulting institution working with a small core of in-house professionals with considerable knowledge and expressing keen awareness of cultural values of its societal context for management, business and entrepreneurship development. To cater for specific projects requirements, E-AMARC also draws on the expertise of extensive network of collaborating national, regional and international institutions and organizations from all over the world. It offers short and long training programs in the effects of cultures on international business, entrepreneurship and management.

Being an international Centre for business, entrepreneurship and management research, training and consulting, E-AMARC offers a great deal of many facilities in support of business, management and entrepreneurship training and research. E-AMARC offers a wide range of programs in business, entrepreneurship development and management. A great deal of attention is paid to such issues as the mode in which research, training and consulting are conducted, the interactions between practical business and intellectual tasks, and learning through design and problem-solving mechanisms. Project-oriented research, training and consulting are instruments to this end, showing that E-AMARC does not limit the innovation in its research activities to the contents, but extend it to training and consulting processes.

E-AMARC distinguishes itself as an entrepreneurial organization, adapting its research, training and consulting efforts to the benefit of the society in general and the business communities in particular. New horizons are opened up in both basic and applied research on cultures, management, business, and entrepreneurship development. E-AMARC takes part in numerous national and international programs on supporting entrepreneurship research and development. It offers contract training and research to business and management training institutions and many research fellows as external business consultants and project advisors.

The characteristics of E-AMARC as an entrepreneurial organization is evidenced by the constant spin-off of young, innovative and dynamic businesses set up by participants of E-AMARC business, entrepreneurship and management training and consulting programs. The transfer of appropriate knowledge and technology to the business communities is among E-AMARC top priorities. The results of these transfers are of major importance for practical business activities in industry, trade, public administration and grass-root development. Staying in touch with the needs of the society and business communities is of prime importance to E-AMARC and its collaborators.

Entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial spirits are attitudes you will find throughout E-AMARC; from the trainees to the professors or trainers. It is an attitude allowing people to respond to new ideas and challenges, the willingness to experiment with new and innovative ideas, full with uncertainties and risks.

E-AMARC takes part in several European research programs. The EU-ADAPT is an excellent example of a large, expensive European research project in Supporting Entrepreneurs in New Strategic Environments (SENSE Project) in which E-AMARC is mandated to carry out the cross-cultural research on entrepreneurial values and the designing of training programs in cultural dimensions to entrepreneurship development.

E-AMARC gains a reputation for its practical and challenging culture and management research methods and its involvement with the linkage opportunities between resources of the academic institutions and the needs of the local governments, industry, commerce and society. E-AMARC is highly engaged in basic and applied research that promote the growth of knowledge in meeting the needs of governments, business and society.


The establishment of E-AMARC was influenced by a number of factors among which are:

It follows that, where committed resources are not achieving set objects, there is therefore, the need to re-examine economic development theories and models, how they have been applied, and why they have failed to achieve set objectives. This is with the view to modifying them in congruous with local cultures and environment.

Since E-AMARC understand that the engine of sustainable growth, structural transformation and development in any given society resides in the people and their cultures, it becomes obvious that the basis for economic policy formulation and implementation will remain deficient and ineffective unless there are supportive cultural research data. To this end, E-AMARC was established to undertake cultural research needed to provide the supporting cultural input for socioeconomic and political policy formulation and implementation.


An Executive Director who is assisted by a number of Academics and Senior Research Fellows manages the day to day activities of E-AMARC. Research Associates, Research Assistants and Young Professionals with multidisciplinary academic background support the Senior Research Fellows who are involved mainly in research and consultancy programs.


E-AMARC research, training and consulting activities are designed to provide the needed cultural research data necessary for businesses, entrepreneurship, appropriate management and sustainable economic, political and social development to private and public organizations and institutions worldwide. E-AMARC has created the necessary environment for intellectual interaction that provide balance of practical realities among academics, entrepreneurs, managers, development experts, politicians, and policy-makers.


E-AMARC objective is to provide the needed cultural research data for economic development to public and private organizations; Universities and Business Institutions, Profit-Making Businesses, Small Business Enterprises (Entrepreneurs), Local and International NGO's, with the aim to improve their appropriateness, effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability.Specifically, E-AMARC was established to:

  1. undertake, promote and coordinate cross-cultural studies and research on the effects of cultural values on management processes, practices and economic development in Africa;
  2. organize scientific meetings, seminars and in-service training programs for high-level officials of public and private sectors within the African economies;
  3. design appropriate courses that incorporate the relevance of culture dimensions for management and business to Universities and other such institutions training managers and administrators in Africa;
  4. create data-bank for "growth-positive" and "growth-negative" culture-based factors for economic and social development and serve as resource center for cultural dimensions to businesses, entrepreneurship, management and indigenous development in Africa;
  5. improve top level public and private sector management awareness of cultures as a means of promoting more sustainable development to ensure better policy-making, implementation and management.

To articulate the objectives of E-AMARC, various training, research and consultancy programs have been designed and set up. Within this, E-AMARC provide highly specialized training and consultancy services geared towards managerial and organizational problems and policy implementation as they occur in socio-economic development at national and sub-national levels. Also, E-AMARC offer research, training and consultancy facilities to African scholars and students through its partners and collaborating institutions in Africa and Europe and also at its Research Centre in Maastricht.


To further enhance its role in applied research, E-AMARC has created a division fully engaged in cultures and policy-oriented research, training and consultancy issues. Among other activities, the division focuses its attention on economic and social research; policy analysis, technical assistance to agencies involved in development issues in Africa and policy research seminars that seek to maximize interaction between policy-makers and policy-researchers in Africa.

As a laboratory for Culture Dimensions to Entrepreneurship, Business, Appropriate Management and Indigenous Development in Africa, E-AMARC contribute its cultural inputs to policy formulation and implementation to the public and private sectors, through publication and dissemination of its Research, Consulting and Seminar reports.

Organizations and Institutions needing information on the effects of Cultures on Business, Entrepreneurship, Management and Indigenous Development in any African or European society can take advantage of E-AMARC Research and Development programs in several ways: E-AMARC research members can provide research assistance by conducting primary or secondary research to the organization's or institutions specifications. Alternatively, the organization can work directly with E-AMARC within the specified area of research and training to meet the individual organizational or institutional needs.


E-AMARC staff members and associates have disciplinary background in applied and social sciences, and share an interest in and concern for public and private sector policy management. All members of staff seek to combine closeness to the world of practice with critical insights from the world of theory and scholarship. Our qualifications, special interest and experience can be obtained from the individual's personal files. We can also draw upon the insights and services of colleagues in the Universities and upon partners with other institutions in any country of our clients.


In Partnership Agreement with the University of Nairobi, University of Zimbabwe and Zanzibar University, E-AMARC has established the following Centres in Africa.

  1. Euro-Nairobi Centre for African Entrepreneurship Research and Development University of Nairobi, Nairobi-Kenya
  2. Euro-Zimbabwe Centre for Small Business Research and Development University of Zimbabwe, Harare-Zimbabwe;
  3. Euro-Zanzibar Centre for Business Research and Development Zanzibar University, Zanzibar-Tanzania

The Centres Mission

Our Mission is to provide LEADERSHIP in the development of Theory and Practice of Small Businesses and Entrepreneurship within the African societies congruous with the local cultures and environment through Research, Training and Consulting.

E-AMARC and its networks of partners bring the resources of the academic and research institutions to the development of the small and medium African enterprises to make them contribute their quota to national development through these Centres. At the present, the potentials and contributions of these enterprises have not be adequately addressed by academic institutions and recognized by official statistical indicators of development in Africa.

African small businesses when fully assisted by the Universities and other such institutions engaged in applied research on entrepreneurial skills, will play a central role in transforming African economies from the present negative to positive situations. A consensus, increasingly reflected in policy reforms and other initiatives, is forming around this vision of Africa's economic future. With the linkage opportunities of the academic institutions and the needs of the local business communities, the small businesses in Africa can develop their skills and talents to the fullest. With the Centres providing the entrepreneurs the opportunity and possibilities of low-cost but high-quality research data, training and consulting services, African countries can make the development of small businesses key strategy for sustainable economic growth with equity.


The Centres bring together the human and material resources of the Universities and training institutions across Africa to help the struggling small businesses that are unable to afford the high consulting fees of professional consultants for their business development and sustained growth

The broader objective of the Centres focuses attention on such issues as fostering indigenous entrepreneurship development within the sub-cultures of the different African countries.

The Centres provide services within the commerce and managerial fields on a project by project basis for small business enterprises. Specifically, the Centres main activities are geared towards the micro, small business enterprises operating within the informal or private sector whose contribution to national economic development goes largely unrecognized by national and international statistical indicators.


The mandates of the Centres are to conduct research, training and consulting activities that promote small business development, provide the needed economic and cultural input to enhance government policies towards small and medium businesses and to positively support the activities of the local entrepreneurs for new jobs creation and sustainable growth. Specifically, the Centres are mandated to:

Within these mandates, the Centres promote entrepreneurship development and enhance capacities of the existing small and medium businesses to take advantage of the linkage opportunities between the University Centres and the business communities. Through the development and provision of research, training and consulting programs specifically targeted towards the small and medium businesses, the entrepreneurs (students and business owners) will be better equipped to develop and more effectively and efficiently manage their own businesses.


E-AMARC has signed more than 20 collaborating agreements with academic and training institutions in Africa and Europe. Most of these provide for trainees and trainers exchange programs. Through these internationally recognized institutions, E-AMARC and its partners in Africa have entered into agreements with European, Asian and American training and research institutions.

AICCD -   African Itinerant College for Culture and Development, Dakar Senegal.

UNESCO -   United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

UNECA -   United Nations Economic Commission for Africa.

IDEP -   United Nations African Institute for Economic Development and Planning, Dakar Senegal.

CAFRAD -   African Training and Research Centre in Administration for Development, Tangier-Morocco.

MUBS -   Makerere University Business School, Kampala, Uganda.

UB -   University of Buea, Buea-Cameroon.

CIMRAT -   International Centre for Management Research and Training, Port Harcourt-Nigeria.

CUOA -   Consorzio Universitario per gli studi di Organizzazione Aziendale, Altavilla Vicentina, Italy.

CESI -   Ecole d’Ingenieurs, Evry Cedex, Paris-France

UT-   University of Trento, Department of Computers and Management Sciences, Trento-Italy.

LDC-   Lanarkshire Development Centre, Bellshire, Scotland.


The Centres staff members and associates have disciplinary background in management and behavioral sciences, and share interest in and concern for public and private sector business policy management. All members of staff and associates seek to combine closeness to the world of practical realities with critical insights from the world of scholarship theory. Apart from the members of the Centres, we can also draw upon the insights and services of colleagues in the Universities and upon partners with other public and private organizations locally and internationally.

Request for more information and delivery of any of the above mentioned programs should be addressed to:

The Executive Director

Euro-African Management Research Centre (E-AMARC), Hyacinthenstraat 23 6214 TC Maastricht The Netherlands. Tel: +31 43 3431497 Fax: +31 43 3431497/3260203 E-mail: e-amac@cuci.nl

The Director

Euro-Zanzibar Centre for Business Research and Development, Faculty of Business Administration, Zanzibar University, PO Box 2440 Zanzibar-Tanzania Tel: +255 811602784 or +255 54 232642 Fax: +255 811338174 E-mail: zanvarsity@zitec.org

The Director

Centre for Small Business Research and Development, Faculty of Commerce, University of Zimbabwe, PO Box MP 167 Mount Pleasant, Harare-Zimbabwe. Tel: +263 4 303211 ext. 1515/1302 Fax: +263 4 333674 E-mail: hmukwenha@esanet.zw

The Coordinator

Centre for African Entrepreneurship Research and Development (CAERD), Faculty of Commerce, University of Nairobi PO Box 30197 Nairobi-Kenya Tel: +254 2 217441/334244 Fax: +254 2 224457 E-mail: f.kibera@uonbi.ac.ke

Send mail to e-amac@cuci.nl with questions about E-AMARC Programs or comments about this web site.

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